32. Exposureto different events forces the brain to think differently.
原文：The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombardthe brain with things it has never encountered before.
同义替换：Exposure = encountered ；forces = bombard ；think = see
33. Iconoclastsare unusually receptive to new experiences.
原文：Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposedto what is fresh and different.
同义替换：Are usually receptive=have an extraordinarywillingness to be ；exposed to new experience=what is fresh and different
34. Mostpeople are too shy to try different things.
原文：Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while mostpeople avoid things that are different.
同义替换：try与avoid相反；different things = things that are different
35. Ifyou think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
原文：Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops theaverage person in his tracks.
同义替换：in an iconoclastic way = like an iconoclast ；easily overcome与 impediment ; stops相反
36. Whenconcern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.
37. Fearof public speaking is a psychological illness.
原文：But fear of public speaking, which everyonemust do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes ittoo common to be considered a mental disorder.
同义替换：a psychological illness = mental disorder
1. There are understandablereasons why arguments occur about language.
原文 : Popular linguistic debate regularly deteriorates into invective and polemic.Language belongs to everyone, so most people feel they have a right to hold anopinion about it.
同义替换：understandable reasons = they havea right to ；arguments = debate ； language = linguistic
2. People feel more strongly about languageeducation than about small differences in language usage.
原文：And when opinions differ, emotionscan run high. Arguments can start as easily over minor points of usage as overmajor policies of linguistic education.
同义替换：more strongly = over ；language = linguistic ；small = minor
3. Our assessment of a person's intelligence isaffected by the way he or she uses language.
原文：No part of a society or social behaviour is exempt: linguistic factorsinfluence how we judge personality, intelligence, social status, educationalstandards, job aptitude, and many other areas of identity and social survival.
同义替换：assessment = judge ；is affected by = influence ；language = linguistic
4. Prescriptive grammar books cost a lot of moneyto buy in the 18th century.
原文：All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially inthe 18th century approach to the writing of grammars and dictions.
5. Prescriptivism still exists today.
原文：These attitudes are still with us, and they motivate a widespread concernthat linguistic standards should be maintained.
同义替换：still exists = are still withus
6. According to descriptivists itis pointless to try to stop language change.
原文：This approach is summarized in the statement that it is the task ofgrammarian of describe, not prescribe—to record the facts of linguisticdiversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating languagevariation or halting language change.
同义替换：pointless = impossible ; try to =attempt ; halting = stop
7. Descriptivism only appeared after the 18thcentury.
原文：In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates ofthis view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761)insists that ' the custom of Speaking is the original and only just standard ofany language' .
同义替换：Descriptivism = this view ;appeared = find
8. Both descriptivists and prescriptivists havebeen misrepresented.
原文：In our own time, the opposition between 'descriptivists' and 'prescriptivists'has often become extreme, with both sides painting unreal picture of the other.
同义替换：misrepresented = unreal
38. The concept of describingsomething as true or false was the starting point for Shannon in his attemptsto send messages over distances.
原文：The most basic form of information, Shannon argued, is whether somethingis true or false which can be captured in the binary unit or 'bit' of the form1 or 0.
同义替换：the starting point = The mostbasic form
39. The amount of information that can be sent in agiven time period is determined with reference to the signal strength and noiselevel.
原文：This rate depends on the relative strengths of the signal and noisetravelling down the communication channel, and on its capacity (its' bandwidth')
同义替换：is determined with = depends on ;the signal strength = strengths of the signal
40. Productshave now been developed which can convey more information than Shannon had anticipatedas possible.
原文 : As recently as 1993,engineers made a major breakthrough by discoveringso called-turbo codes—which come very close to Shannon' s ultimate limit forthe maximum rate that data can be transmitted rapidly, and now play a key rolein the mobile videophone revolution.
同义替换：Products = turbo codes ; more information与very close t不同
1. Marie Curie'shusband was a joint winner of both Marie's Nobel Prizes.
原文：With her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel, she was awardedthe 1903 Nobel Prize for physic, and was then sole winner of the 1911 NobelPrize for Chemistry.
同义替换：both Marie's Nobel Prizes = the1903 Nobel Prize for physic ；the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry ；joint与 sole相反
2. Marie becameinterested in science when she was a child.
原文 : From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory, andat the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education.
同义替换：child = childhood
3. Marie was able toattend the Sorbonne because of her sister's financial contribution.
原文：From her earning she was able to finance her sister Bronia' s medicalstudies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would, in turn, later helpher to get an education. In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and Marie went toParis and began to study at Sorbonne (The university of Paris)
同义替换：attend the Sorbonne = study atSorbonne ；financial Contribution = help her to get an education
4. Marie stoppeddoing research for several years when her children were born.
原文：The births of Marie' s two daughters, Irene and Eve, in 1897 and 1904failed to interrupt her science
同义替换：stopped = interrupt ； children = two daughters ；were born = births
5. Marie took overthe teaching position her husband had held.
原文 : On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that hadbeen left vacant on her husband' s death, becoming the first woman to teach atthe Sorbonne.
同义替换：took over = was appointed to ; theteaching position = the professorship ; left vacant on her husband' s death =her husband had held
6. Marie's sisterBronia studied the medical uses of radioactivity.
原文：Marie also gave lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Czechoslovakiaand, in addition, had the satisfaction of seeing the development of the CurieFoundation in Paris, and the inauguration in 1932 in Warsaw of the RadiumInstitute, where her sister Bronia became director.
37. Consumersprefer theme parks which avoid serious issues.
原文：Theme parks are undergoing other changes, too, as they try to presentmore serious social and cultural issues, and move away from fantasy. Thisdevelopment is a response to market forces....
同义替换：Consumers = market forces ; avoid与present相反
38. Morepeople visit museums than theme parks.
原文：This development is a response to marketforces and, although museums and heritage sites have a special, ratherdistinct, role to fulfil, they are also operating in a very competitiveenvironment, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their freetime.
同义替换：people = visitors
39. Theboundaries of Leyden have changed little since the seventeenth century.
原文：In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century wasoccupied by approximately the same number of inhabitants as today, people livedwithin the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modernLeyden.
同义替换：boundaries = area ；changed little与 more than five times smaller不符
40. Museumscan give a false impression of how life used to be.
原文：No wonder that people who stroll around exhibitions are filled withnostalgia; the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better inthe past. This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museumsand heritage centres.
同义替换：false impression = bias in itsrepresentation ；how life used to be = life was so much better in the past
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